Edible mushrooms

By Dominika Chládeková

Edible
mushrooms

Calocybe gambosa

It grows from late April to late May in meadows, on the edge of deciduous forests and in shrubs on grassy slopes. It is a very tasty edible mushroom suitable for any preparation, typical for its floury aroma, very thick and thin leaves, cream-white color and firm, fleshy flesh.

The hat has a diameter of 60-120 mm, at first it is bell-arched, later flat-spread, whitish to cream, in adulthood it is often yellow-brown, smooth and bare.

The leaves are 5-9 mm wide, dense, thin, sometimes also overgrown and vein-shaped, whitish when young, later pale-ocher.
The depth is almost abdominal, later cylindrical, full, coarse, smooth, whitish, often pale-ocher.

Warning! Young fruiting bodies can be confused with the highly poisonous fiber Patouillard, which is also all white when young. However, the fruiting bodies of this fungus turn red in adulthood, and the fruiting bodies of the Mayflower remain white.

Highest occurrence: April – May.

Blue mushroom (cyanoboletus pulve rulentus)

It grows from May to October in deciduous and mixed forests, most often under oaks and beeches; it can rarely be found in pure spruces. It is widespread throughout the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. Although it is a good edible mushroom, the intense bluing of its flesh does not attract most mushroom pickers.

The hat is 40-80 mm in diameter, when young it is hemispherical, then arched and finally cushioned; it is usually colored in various shades of brown, at first it is slightly velvety, later bare, when wet it is usually slimy.

The tubes are 7-15 mm long,  first waxy yellow, then olive yellow; very intense. The pores are initially labyrinthine, then square, of variable size, with a diameter of about 0.85 mm; they are as colored as the tubes, blue when pressed very quickly and strongly.

The size of the mushroom is 40 – 70 mm long and 6 – 18 mm thick, slightly abdominal in youth, later cylindrical. In adulthood it is usually plain.

The flesh is yellow, often red at the base of the depth; on the cut  intensely blue, as if it was covered with ink.

Occurrence: May – October.

Cantharellus cibarius

It is a very tasty mushroom, which is more sought after in Western Europe than e.g. spruce mushroom. The flesh of the cantharellus has a very firm consistency and is therefore one of the most difficult to digest mushrooms. It grows in large numbers and insects hardly degrade it at all. It has a pleasant spicy taste and can be used to prepare meals in various ways.

The cantharellus is very similar to the Cantharellus pallens Pilát. It differs from the previous one with flesher fruiting bodies and a pale, almost white hat. Otherwise, the veins under the hat are as yellowish-yellow as on cantharellus. It grows most often in deciduous forests.

Occurrence: May – November.

Buttercup (suillus luteus)

We can usually find it in groups, most often under double-needle pines, mostly in lowland pines, but also in the rhododendron zone. It is a cosmopolitan species, occurring on all continents. This delicious edible mushroom is easy to digest, suitable for preparing mushroom dishes in various ways. It has a weak but pleasant fruity taste and aroma.

The hat is 40-120 mm in diameter, first it is hemispherical, then cushioned to flat, sometimes it has a blunt hump in the middle. It is usually quite dark in color, but it is often in paler shades.

Occurrence: May – November.

Leccinum scabrum

It is one of the most widespread leccinums in our territory. It occurs throughout the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. It is an excellent edible mushroom, especially while the fruiting bodies are still young. Grow in mixed forests, in groves, especially under birches. There are several similar species among the leccinums, which differ in their connection to a certain species of wood.


The hat is 50-150 mm in diameter, first it is hemispherical, later bell-shaped and finally cushion-shaped. The color is gray-brown to black-brown, smooth or sometimes a little wrinkled, with a blunt edge.


Occurrence: June – October.

Imleria badia

It is usually found in humus-rich soil, but can also be found on dusty stumps, pieces of wood or cones. It is one of the most abundant mushroom-shaped mushrooms. We find it in coniferous and mixed forests. It is an excellent edible mushroom, which is suitable for all mushroom dishes, for drying and pickling in vinegar.


The hat is 40-150 mm in diameter, first it is hemispherical, then pillow-shaped and quite flat, often in old age with the edge raised up. It is chestnut brown, rarely blonde brown or reddish brown, sometimes even black-brown.


Occurrence: June – November.

Macrolepiota procera

It grows on the edges of the forest, on light cuttings, mostly on grassy places near coniferous and deciduous trees. It is widespread throughout the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere and also in Africa, India and Australia. Young hats are usually prepared in the manner of a Viennese steak. Older fruiting bodies tend to be very aromatic and are most often used for eating only in a mixture with other mushrooms. Beware of confusion with poisonous macrolepiota and sharp-scaled macrolepiota. What to watch out for? Poisonous garden macrolepiota differs in that if it is cut, it turns red or reddish brown.

 

The hat is 100-300 mm in diameter, first it is cylindrical or ellipsoidal, later conically arched and finally flat, always with a bump in the middle.


Occurrence: July – October.

 Boletus edulis

It is a king among mushrooms. There are about 30 species of boletus. The most famous are oak, pine, bronze, birch, hornbeam. It is an excellent edible mushroom, suitable for any preparation. It grows mainly in mountain and foothill spruce forests. It has a pleasant taste and aroma, but does not smell as intense as oak mushrooms.


The hat is 60-250 mm in diameter, first it is hemispherical, then it is flat. When young, while covered with needles, it is usually white, then brown and in adulthood dark brown (much darker than an oak mushroom hat).


Occurrence: August – November