Inedible an poisonous mushrooms

By Dominika Chládeková

Inedible
and poisonous mushrooms

Red toadstool (amanita muscaria)

It occurs in coniferous and deciduous forests, and it is quite abundant. It is widespread throughout the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, but also in North Africa and Australia. It is the most beautiful mushroom in our forests. Every mushroom picker knows that it is poisonous.

In addition to the red toadstool, its relative Amanita regalis is also rarely growing in our country. All external features are the same as the red toadstool, differing from it only by the dark brown color of the hat and the ocher-yellowish nipples on the hat. It grows in spruce forests, most often in higher altitudes. It has similar toxic effects as the red toadstool.

Occurrence: August – November

Paxillus involutus

It grows in coniferous and deciduous forests. It often occurs outside the forest in parks, gardens or in the grass among low shrubs far from the forest. It is extended throughout the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. Until recently, it was considered an edible mushroom of inferior quality. However, experience from recent years has shown that frequent consumption of the fluff has caused severe illness and even death. Therefore, we do not recommend it for eating.

The hat is 40-120 mm in diameter. The leaves are 4-6 mm wide, thin and dense, converging to the depth. The depth is 30-60 mm long and 10-20 mm thick, cylindrical, solid, rigid, smooth and bare, yellow-ocher or ocher-brown; usually usually brown after pressing.

The flesh is soft and juicy, first yellowish-white, then brownish, black with cooking. The taste has an acidic and pleasant aroma, mushroom, relatively weak.

Occurrence: June – November.

Entoloma sinuatum

It is a highly poisonous fungus, dangerous mainly because the shape and depth of the color do not differ significantly from the blackthorn. The color and smell of the flesh are also similar. It is widespread throughout the northern hemisphere of the northern hemisphere, especially in deciduous forests.

The robust cylindrical depth is 4 – 12 cm long and 0.5 – 3 cm thick, the spores are fleshy pink to fleshy red, the flesh is white, shiny, with the scent of fresh flour.

Occurrence: May – September.

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Lactarius torminosus

It is an inedible, sharply burning species that can cause mild poisoning to sensitive people. In the past, it was considered poisonous. It occurs mostly in groups on both dry and moist soils, in forests, on the edges of meadows, in parks and gardens. It is a fairly abundant species in our territory. Sometimes pinkish-orange spots may appear on the depths.

The hat has a diameter of 50-120 mm, when young it is arched, in the middle it is navel-pressed, conspicuously curled edge. The leaves are 3-4 mm wide, thin, dense, pinkish-yellow, converging to a depth. The depth is cylindrical, hard, brittle, 30-70 mm long and 10-25 mm thick, bare, smooth al. slightly pitted, reddish, paler below, first stuffed, later hollow.
The flesh is white, pink under the hat, the taste is bitter and the aroma is inconspicuous.

Occurrence: July – October.

Boletus satanas

It grows in light deciduous forests, especially under beeches, oaks and hornbeams. It is a thermophilic mushroom, widespread in warm areas of Europe. It is a poisonous mushroom, especially when raw, but it does not cause deadly poisoning. The poisoning is manifested by convulsive vomiting, which often lasts up to 6 hours. Young fruiting bodies attract with their beauty, while old ones repel with an unpleasant odor.

The hat is 60-250 mm in diameter, is gray-gray, pale gray-yellow, pale brown, often with a greenish tinge or in some places up to green-green. The depth is 40-120 mm long and 40-150 mm thick colored yellow and red. Yellow sometimes prevails, other times red.

Occurrence: July – September.

Tiger toadstool (amanita pantherina)

It is a highly poisonous fungus, causing serious poisoning. It resembles a rough toadstool, which is often confused by inexperienced mushroom pickers. It is widespread throughout the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. Symptoms of poisoning appear later after ingestion – after about 6-8 hours.

The hat has a short groove on the edge, covered with whitish rattles, sometimes (after rains) also bare, yellow-brown, gray-brown to gray-ocher, darker in the middle, sometimes even dark brown. The leaves are white. The depth is usually thinner than the reddish toadstool.

Occurrence: August – November.

Green toadstool (amanita phalloides)

In the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, it is the most toxic fungus to cause fatal poisoning. Every year, it takes several human lives unnecessarily. Without a perfect knowledge of this fungus, mushroom pickers should not even go to the forest. It grows in deciduous and coniferous forests.

The green toadstool contains several toxins, the most toxic of which is amanitin, which damages liver cells. Older people and children are particularly sensitive to amanitin.

Occurrence: July – October.

Echinoderma asperum

The sharp-scaled perch grows individually or in groups on rich calcareous soil near roads and forests. The flesh is white and has an unpleasant odor. It looks like a bed, and it is one of the most toxic mushrooms ever. It has been shown to contain poisons similar to the green toadstool.

The hat is conical to bell-shaped when young, it spreads out in adulthood. It is 12 to 15 cm wide, rusty brown, covered with yellow or dark brown thorny scales. The leaves are white, loose at depth, dense, thin, with an uneven edge. The whitish depth is 12 cm high and 1 to 2 cm thick. the scales are as colored as the hat scales. The depth is ovoid in shape.

Occurrence: August – November.